TB (Tuberculosis): Definition, Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention

TB (Tuberculosis)

TB (Tuberculosis): Definition, Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention

Tuberculosis, or the serious disease known as TB, is a bacterial infectious disease that affects the lungs. With millions of cases each year, tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most common infectious diseases that cause death globally.

Definition of TB (tuberculosis)

TB is a common infectious disease caused by a bacteria called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In many cases, this infectious disease also becomes fatal. Generally TB attacks the lungs, but it can occur in any part of the body such as lungs, bones, eyes and brain etc. TB is commonly found in the lungs. 

This disease spreads through the air. As soon as a healthy person comes in contact with a sick person's cough, sneeze or any other activity that releases his bacteria in the air, he also becomes infected.

Brief History of Tuberculosis and Its Impact on Society
Human societies have been affected by tuberculosis for thousands of years. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, it was a major public health issue in many industrialized countries, leading to the development of sanatoriums and other treatment facilities. Despite advances in treatment, tuberculosis remains a significant global health problem, particularly in low- and middle-income countries.

Causes of tuberculosis
There are many reasons for a healthy person to get tuberculosis, some of them are as follows -

  1. The bacteria that cause tuberculosis are transmitted through the air when an infected person coughs or sneezes.
  2. weakened immune system
  3. people living in crowded or unhygienic conditions and close contact with infected individuals.
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Symptoms of TB (tuberculosis)
Symptoms of TB are common. The following symptoms appear in the afflicted person:-

 ➤  Persistent cough and chest pain – Cough is the main symptom of TB. Because it mainly damages the lungs. In the beginning, this cough is normal, but with time, blood starts coming in it and along with it, the patient also starts having pain in the chest. If someone has cough for more than two weeks, he should see a doctor immediately.

 ➤  Fever usually in the evening - The person suffering from this disease gets fever in the evening and as the infection progresses, the fever also starts increasing.

 ➤  Loss of appetite - A person suffering from TB does not feel hungry. He does not pay attention to his diet, due to which his weight also starts decreasing.

 ➤  Bone Pain and Diarrhea - A person suffering from TB starts having fever due to which his body becomes weak and pain starts in his bones. Due to pain, the patient does not know how to walk much. Along with this, the patient also complains of diarrhea.

 ➤  Sweating - A person suffering from TB sweats profusely. Even if there is a lot of cold, but the patient sweats along with fever.

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Diagnosis of TB (tuberculosis)
There are a number of tests used to diagnose tuberculosis, including:

  1. skin tests
  2. blood tests
  3. chest X-rays
However, diagnosing tuberculosis can be challenging, especially where resources are limited and where diagnostic equipment may not be readily available.

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Discuss the challenges of diagnosing TB(tuberculosis)

Tuberculosis is often referred to as the "silent epidemic" because it can be difficult to diagnose, especially in its early stages. In many cases, people with tuberculosis may not experience symptoms until the disease is already advanced. Additionally, some of the tests used to diagnose tuberculosis may not be widely available where the disease is most prevalent.

Transmission of TB (tuberculosis)
TB disease is governed by the following factors.

1. by air
2. Causes of droplets while coughing, sneezing and spitting.
3. On not getting treatment for TB.
4. Due to coughing and sneezing in crowded places.

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TB (tuberculosis) in children
TB (tuberculosis) is a deadly disease for children which is dangerous for them.

There can be many reasons for the spread of TB in children such as –

 ➠  Children living in a household where an adult has active tuberculosis. Children in such a household are at increased risk of contracting TB.
 ➠  Children getting infected with HIV.
 ➠  The child being in any other immunological status.
 ➠  Children living in a country with a high prevalence of TB.
 ➠  Children do not get doctor's service or medical services are available in less quantity.

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Treatment of tuberculosis

 ➥  Treatment for tuberculosis usually involves a combination of antibiotics, taken over a period of several months. 

 ➥  In addition to medication, the patient should make lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking and taking a healthy diet. This also helps in improving the results. 

 ➥  To prevent the development of drug-resistant strains of bacteria, it is important to complete the course of TB treatment. Because even if the symptoms improve, but if the treatment is not completed, this disease can also recur.

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TB (tuberculosis) Prevention and Control
In order to control immunity from TB, the patient should follow the following suggestions:-

 ➠  On detection of TB, the patient should immediately see the doctor and take complete treatment.
 ➠  You should take complete rest.
 ➠  Cover the mouth while coughing and sneezing.
 ➠  Do not cough and sneeze in public places.
 ➠  Do not consume any such substance which affects the lungs like cigarette, bidi, tobacco etc.
 ➠  You should pay full attention to your food and drink. Nutritious food should be eaten.
 ➠  Do not stay in too closed room.
 ➠  Vaccination is the only cure for TB. That's why at the birth of the child, he must get BCG vaccine.

TB (tuberculosis) Day is celebrated all over the world on 24 March. On this day every year, under the aegis of the World Health Organization (WHO), many programs related to TB are conducted all over the world, which aims to make people aware of this disease and eliminate it. TB disease can be cured. But it is very necessary to get complete treatment for this, otherwise the patient's life can also be lost.

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